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A公司城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式研究(碩士)

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論文題目: A公司城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式研究(碩士)(論文40000字)
(英文):Research on PPP Commercial model of Urban Rail Transit Construction of Company A
摘 要
伴隨社會經濟的快速發展,城市軌道交通在城市發展中所起到的作用越來越高,城市軌道交通建設、營運情況已經成為了一個城市社會經濟實力的一個標志。近些年來,我國城市化發展速度不斷加快,城市人口的井噴式增長以及社會經濟的快速發展促使城市軌道交通快速發展,當前我國城市軌道交通正處于快速發展時期。就城市軌道交通建設問題,我國國家通過出臺相關土地、環境、能源政策,促使城市軌道交通建設以高密度集約化方向進行對城市態度以及城市地下空間的開發。通過國家政策引導,實現城市快速發展背景下城市軌道交通建設的交通走廊的完善。我國政府明確指出城市軌道交通系統其所具備的合理性、科學性將實現城市土地開發利用朝向集約化發展,逐步推進軌道交通的規劃建設。
“十二五”期間,城市軌道交通通車里程達3286公里,累計已有25座城市的112條線路通車運行,較“十一五”末期通車里程1430公里,相比增長1850公里,增幅達到130%。且在7種城市軌道交通制式中地鐵中仍占據絕對主導地位,占比高達73.4%。相比于2011年,2016年新增線路總長度高達288公里,增幅高達85.8%;而與2015年相比,線路新增長度高達445公里,增幅高達20.2%。其次,我國城市軌道交通呈現多種制式共同發展的趨勢,根據我國權威部門所公布的數據顯示,我國城市軌道中地鐵通車里程數于2017年為3881.8公里,相比于2016年增長709.8公里,且,其他制式的通車里程也在增加,地鐵雖說仍占據著軌道交通的主導地位,但是其影響與作用正在逐漸減弱,其它制式結構如現代有軌電車已開始憑借自身的特點優勢得以迅速發展,據中國城市軌道交通協會統計,“截止2016年末,城市軌道交通中輕軌、市域快軌、有軌電車通車里程數分別為233公里、412公里和183.77公里。 【內容來自www.2329055.live 咨詢QQ:306826066】
現階段我國城市軌道交通正處于快速發展時期中,完善城市軌道交通體系發展,實現城市軌道交通的穩步建設,優化城市軌道交通布局,是地方政府為實現城市軌道交通發展需要著重考慮的問題。城市軌道交通建設、運營、運營里程、客流量的逐年增加,一方面,對于投資體量巨大的軌道交通來說,這勢必給政府財政帶來不少壓力。另一方面,客流量的大幅增加也給軌道交通運營帶來了很大的挑戰。為此,國家在軌道交通領域積極推行PPP模式,以期解決軌道交通的投融資、建設與運營問題,從近兩年的實施情況來看,軌道交通領域PPP實施的效果較為明顯,一定程度上緩解了政府的財政壓力和運營專業化問題,但是也存在著一些亟待解決的問題。
城市軌道交通市場潛力巨大、前景廣闊,城市軌道交通建設項目也逐漸向著規模越來越大、建設周期越來越長的方向發展,對于市場中的投資者或其他企業來說,這樣的特性也就意味著投資額巨大、風險高、投資回收期長等特性,在日趨激烈的市場競爭環境下,更好的保證軌道交通的建設能滿足國家和人民的需求,企業如果要實現更大更強的發展目標,必須即時轉變和創新觀念,跟隨市場變化及時改革、調整、優化商業模式,才能在瞬息萬變的市場競爭中贏得一席之地,實現企業的可持續發展。因此,本文對現階段主流商業運作模式進行分析研究,以此為企業發展轉型尋找方向。通過采取最優化方式進行市場拓展,以此實現企業的擴張,提高企業效益,確保企業能夠與更好更快發展。 【本文來自56doc.com QQ:869918441】
過去數百年中,不斷上演著企業興衰交替的故事,企業商業模式也不斷更迭。商業模式本質是什么,其背后有哪些規律特征,為什么有的商業模式可以盛極一時,卻最終會毀于一旦。商業模式指的是企業實現盈利的方式或是途徑,也可以稱之為企業發展戰略。商業模式的優化創新不僅僅能夠為企業技術發展指引方向,同時還能夠促使企業內部組織結構、企業文化、企業資源配置等方面的優化創新。即商業模式的優化創新實質是系統性的創新,這也是當前國際產業競爭、企業發展的主要趨勢。
商業模式描述企業如何創造價值,并伴隨著時間、技術和企業認知的發展不斷向前推進和演化。在傳統的商業模式之下,城市軌道交通建設過程中的總投資只能由政府承擔,其運營過程中出現的虧損只能由政府進行補貼,從這一點來說,對其商業模式創新策略進行研究是非常有必要的。城市軌道交通建設商業模式的確定要根據當地的人口、經濟等多方面綜合因素來進行考量。本文將針對現代城市軌道交通建設的商業模式創新策略進行研究。
中車四方車輛有限公司是中國中車股份有限公司的全資子公司,前身為四方機車車輛廠,始建于1900年;主要從事鐵路高檔客車、高速動車組的研發制造與修理,各類機客車、城市交通裝備的研發制造與修理,公路鐵路兩用專用車輛制造與修理,機車車輛技術服務,物流及新材料等業務。2013年中車四方車輛有限公司以“新型導軌電車系統產品”為代表進入城市軌道交通建設市場,逐步以傳統的商業模式開展了市場開拓和項目建設、實施,取得了較好的成績;期間遇到了城市軌道交通建設的政策觀念、理論認識、技術、融資、投資、建設實施、管理運營服務等等諸多新的難題,也對其中多項問題形成了初步的有效方案和模式。 56doc.com QQ:306826066
論文以中車四方車輛有限公司(定義為A公司)城市軌道交通建設產業的商業模式研究及PPP商業模式實踐應用為研究對象,分析A公司城市軌道交通建設市場商業模式現狀,根據城市軌道交通系統的市場特點,對A公司城市軌道交通項目的商業模式中存在的主要問題進行科學性的識別并加以分析。以A公司城市軌道交通項目營銷建設具體去信息為基礎建立了適合A公司的城市軌道交通項目營銷建設PPP商業模式,提出PPP商業模式在城市軌道交通建設中的實施要點。旨在為A公司城市軌道交通市場發展提供思路和借鑒。

關鍵詞:城市軌道交通建設,商業模式,PPP

Abstract   
With the acceleration of urbanization in the world, urban rail transit construction and operation have become an important symbol of comprehensive national strength, urban economic strength, technology power, the living standard of people and modernization. Urban rail transit plays an increasingly vital role in economic and social development. In recent years, the development of urban rail transit in China is entering a new phase with the rapid growth of urban population and economic and strong promotion of public policies. Under the guidance of land, environment, energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the development and utilization of urban land will be developed in the direction of intensive intensification. In this direction, the transportation corridor which is suitable for the construction of fast rail transit with large capacity will be continuously expanded and improved in the city.

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The central and local governments have realized that a well-planned urban rail transit system can become the center link and engine of development of intensive land use, and gradually promotes planning and construction of the rail transit.
During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, the mileage of urban rail transit reached 3286 kilometers, with a total of 112 lines opened in 25 cities. Comparing with the end of “11th Five-Year Plan”, the mileage has increased 1850km from 1430km, a 130% rise. Among them, the subway still occupies the absolute dominant position in the seven types of urban rail transit systems, accounting for up to 73.4%. The length of the newly opened line in 2016, the first year of “13th Five-Year Plan”, increased by 85.8% compared with the 228km in 2011 and increased by 20.2% compared with the 445km in 2015.
Secondly, the urban rail transit in our country shows a trend of common development of various systems. According to the China Urban Rail Transit Association, the mileage of the subway increased from 3,172 kilometers in 2016 to 3,881.8 kilometers in 2017, meanwhile, the opening mileage of other types of rail transit is also increasing. Although the subway still occupies the leading position of rail transit, its influence and effect are gradually weakened. Other types of rail transit such as modern trams have begun to develop rapidly by virtue of their own characteristics and advantages. According to statistics, as of the end of 2016, the operating mileages of the light rail, Trams and urban rail transit reached 233 km, 183.77 km, 412 km.

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China has entered a new period of rapid development of urban rail transit. Accelerating the construction of urban rail transit and improving the comprehensive urban traffic environment have become the top priority of the current urban development.
The mileage and passenger flow of urban rail transit are increasing year by year. On the one hand, it is bound to put a lot of pressure on the government finances. On the other hand, the large increase of passenger flow also brings great challenges to the operation of rail transit; therefore, the state actively promotes the PPP mode in the field of rail transit in order to solve the problems of investment and financing, construction and operation of rail transit. From the implementation of the past two years, the effect of PPP implementation has become more obvious in the field of rail transit. This has alleviated the government's financial pressure and operational specialization to a certain extent, but there are still some problems to be solved urgently.
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Urban rail transit market has huge potential and broad prospects. In the meantime, the scale of urban rail transit construction projects has become bigger and the construction period has become longer. For investors or other enterprises in the market, such characteristics also mean that the huge investment, high risk, and long investment recovery period. Under the fierce market competition, building urban rail transit with the higher standard is better able to meet the needs of the country and the people. In order to win a place in the rapidly changing market competition and realize the sustainable development, enterprises must have innovation ideas to adjust business models based on market change. Therefore, this paper makes a research and analysis on the mainstream commercial operation mode at present, with a view to defining the direction and goal for the development and construction of the enterprise. In order to achieve the better and faster growth and promote the expansion of enterprise scale and benefit, enterprises need to expand the market in the most effective way.
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Over the past few centuries, enterprises have been on the rise and fall, and the business model has changed. What is the nature of the business model, what are the rules behind it, and why some business models can be very prosperous, but they will end up destroyed. Business model is the right way and method of corporate profits, is the top of the corporate strategy design. Business model innovation is not only the choice of direction and route of business technology, but also involves the all-round and deep-level revolution of business organization, culture and resource allocation. Therefore, the essence of business model innovation is systematic innovation, which is also a new trend of international industrial competition.
Business models describe how businesses create value and move forward and evolve along with the development of time, technology, and corporate awareness. Under the traditional business model, the total investment in urban rail transit construction can only be borne by the government, losses arising from the operation of rail transit can only be conducted by government subsidies; therefore, it is necessary to conduct innovative research on its business model.
【本文來自56doc.com QQ:869918441】

The business model of urban rail transit construction is determined by the local population, economy and other comprehensive factors. This paper will study the business model innovation strategy of modern urban rail transit construction.
CRRC Sifang Co., Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation (abbreviated as CRRC), is a nationally accredited high and new technical company. The company was the former Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works, founded in 1900. The company has several major industrial structures and manufacturing bases, covering manufacturing and refurbishing of railway high-grade passenger coaches, manufacturing and refurbishing of high-speed EMU, repair and maintenance of all types of passenger cars, urban transport equipment, rolling stock technical services, casting and forging and logistics.
This paper takes the urban rail transit construction business of CRRC Sifang Co., Ltd. (defined as Company A) as the research object and analyzes the present situation of the market business model of the urban rail transit construction in Company A; furthermore, to systematically identify and analyze the main problems in the business model of Company A’s urban rail transit project based on the market characteristics of urban rail transit system. In view of the specific situation of marketing and construction of urban rail transit project of Company A, a PPP commercial model for marketing and construction of urban rail transit project for Company A was established, and the key points of implementation of PPP commercial model in urban rail transit construction were proposed. This paper aims to provide ideas and references for the development of Company A in the urban rail transit market.

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Keywords: Urban rail transit construction,Commercial model,PPP

目 錄
第1章緒論    1
1.1研究背景及意義    1
1.1.1研究背景    1
1.1.2研究目的    2
1.1.3研究意義    2
1.2本文研究框架    3
1.2.1研究方法    3
1.2.2基本路線    3
1.2.3論文研究內容    3
第2章 相關成本理論綜述    5
2.1城市軌道交通建設及其商業模式相關概念    5
2.1.1 城市軌道交通的概念    5
2.1.2 商業模式的概念    8
2.1.3 城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式的主要內容和特點    9
2.2國內城市軌道交通建設商業模式研究現狀綜述    13
2.2.1目前國內城市軌道交通建設的商業模式    13
2.2.2  各商業模式優劣分析    15
2.2.3 城市軌道交通建設PPP模式的契合性    17
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2.3商業模式構成要素及相互關系    18
2.3.1 商業模式構成要素    18
2.3.2 商業模式構成要素相互關系    21
2.3.3 軌道交通建設PPP模式相互關系概念模型    21
第3章 A公司城市軌道交通建設商業模式的現狀、問題及成因分析    32
3.1 A公司概況簡介    32
3.1.1 A公司現行組織架構系模型    32
3.1.2 A公司經營和市場情況    33
3.1.3 A公司軌道交通建設市場的核心資源    34
3.2 A公司城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式現狀    37
3.2.1 A公司優化適應軌道交通建設市場的組織架構及職能    37
3.2.2 A公司開發城市軌道交通建設產品適用性    38
3.3 A公司城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式存在問題    41
3.3.1 A公司PPP商業模式采用“大客戶營銷”概念    41
3.3.2 A公司城市軌道交通建設PPP商業模式方案不成熟    41
3.4成因分析    43

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3.4.1 客觀原因分析    43
3.4.2 A公司主觀原因分析    43
第4章 A公司改進PPP商業模式方案的分析與選擇    45
4.1 A公司軌道交通建設PPP模式選擇原則    46
4.1.1經濟性原則    46
4.1.2系統性原則    47
4.1.3可操作性原則    47
4.1.4戰略性原則    48
4.1.5可持續性原則    49
4.2A公司軌道交通建設PPP模式改進方案對比    50
4.2.1 河北項目PPP商業模式概況及分析    50
4.2.1.1 河北項目概況    50
4.2.1.2 收入來源及預測估算    51
4.2.1.3 項目建設PPP商業模式選擇    52
4.2.1.4 河北項目PPP商業模式效益分析    52
4.2.1.5 河北項目PPP商業模式風險評估及應對措施    55
4.2.1.6 河北項目PPP商業模式發展    56
4.2.2 安徽項目PPP商業模式概況與分析    57
4.2.2.1 安徽項目概況    57

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4.2.2.2 收入來源及預測估算    58
4.2.2.3 安徽項目PPP商業模式的運作方式    59
4.2.2.4  安徽項目PPP商業模式效益分析    60
4.3 PPP改進方案的總體思路和主要內容    61
4.3.1 明確項目方案標的范圍    61
4.3.2 明確項目方案收入來源、數額及相關策略    62
4.3.3 系統性考慮項目方案的風險    63
第5章 A公司改進PPP商業模式實施策略    64
5.1 A公司改進PPP商業模式實施步驟    64
5.1.1 投資范圍以及建造成本確定方式    64
5.1.2 特許運營期年限    65
5.1.3 運營收益及風險分擔方式    65
5.1.4 運營成本及風險分擔方式    66
5.1.5 社會投資方回報率    66
5.1.6 政府購買服務補貼資金確定方式    66
5.1.7 建立合理可行的退出機制    67
5.2 A公司改進PPP商業模式實施保障體系    67 版權所有www.2329055.live
5.2.1 A公司團隊保障    67
5.2.2  A公司戰略保障    68
5.2.3  A公司激勵機制    68
5.3 A公司改進PPP商業模式復驗效果    69
第6章 結論與啟示    70
參考文獻    71
致 謝    73

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